Term

Definition

poach, to to cook eggs or fish by boiling in simmering water at 90°C
wilt, to to cause to wither as a fading flower
roast, to to bake food uncovered resulting in a crisp appearanceto cook food by direct exposure to dry heat, as on a spit
aspic a jelly dish made with meat, or fish, or vegetables, or fruit
bain-marie
a method of heating ingredients or food gently and gradually, by putting the container with the food inside a larger one, filled with hot watercold bain-marie: a method of faster chilling ingredients or food, by putting the container with the food inside a larger one, filled with cold water and ice cubes
bard, to to cover meat or fish with a thin slice of fat or bacon, so that it won’t dry during cooking
braise, to to cook by sautéeing in fat and then in a small amount of liquid, usually in a covered pan: a method often used for meat
clarified butter almost-pure butterfat, with a higher smoke point (and a much longer shelf life) than fresh butter
candy, to to coat (usually fruit) with, or cook in, sugar or sugar syrup
foil, baking with a cooking method, by wrapping food in some baking paper or aluminum foil, so that liquid ingredients like wine and stock will be trapped inside and your food will stay moist
clarify, to to remove insoluble matter suspended in wineto make clear by heating (above all applied to butter and stock)
citronette an emulsion of lemon (or other citrus fruit, like orange, graprefruit or clementine) juice and oil
deglaze, to to detach from a pan small pieces of cooked food, so that they can be used in further cooking, by adding some liquid (wine, stock, water…)
emulsion a mixture of two liquids normally unblendable, like mayonnaise, vinaigrette and citronette
deep-fry, to to fry in fat, in a quantity sufficient to cover the food
fumet a concentrated stock, made by simmering scraps of fish, or meat, and vegetable in some water
glaze, to in pastry-making, to coat some dessert with a glaze, usually sugar or sugar syrup

in cooking, to give some food a glossy surface, usually by passing it in a pan with some butter

gratinate, to to cook as to give a golden brown appearance and form a top crust
bread, to to coat food with breadcrumbs before cooking
sprinkle (with), to to cover some food with a sauce or dressing
julienne a cutting technique, consisting in cutting good into thin stripes/sticks
macerate, to to soften some food, usually herbs, by soaking in a liquid
mantecare an Italian verb, meaning to give a food (usually rice) a creamy texture (often by adding butter and grated parmesan)
marinate, to to soak food in a marinade (a seasoned liquid, usually wine or vinegar, but also milk or simple oil, with herbs and spices) to let it absorb the flavors (the longest it last, the tenderest and most flavored it will be)
clean, to a generic term, meaning to free form dirt and to remove inedible parts from some food
nap, to to spread with a small quantity of sauce or cooking liquid
pisto an Italian mixture of various ground spices, like cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, cilantro and star anise
pasteurize, to to thermically treat food so that to destroy certain microorganisms and guarantee a longer shelf life
brown, to to sligthly fry, so that food will turn golden brown
roux a mix of cooked flour and butter, used as a base thickening agent for some sauces, like white sauce
pan-fry, to to sauté, to fry in a small amount of fat
blanch, to to parboil food in water for a few seconds/minutes, until partially cooked, for later cooking by some other method, or for an easier peeling
sfumare an Italian verb, meaning to add a liquid ingredient (usually wine) and then simmer until reduced
simmer, to to cook food in liquid that is kept just below the boiling point
fry, to to cook in a pan placed over direct heat, with hot fat
dust, to o lightly coat or sprinkle with a powdered ingredient (often flour or sugar)
top and tail, to to trim off the ends of some vegetables (like green beans) before cooking
stew, to to cook food by simmerind in a small quantity of liquid, like stock or wine
trifolare an Italian verb, meaning to thinly slice (usually mushrooms) and fry with oil, garlic and parsley
vinaigrette an emulsion of vinegar and oil, usually used to season salads