Anchovies (engraulis encrasicholus, of Engraulidae family) are a family of small, common salt-water forage fish, widespread in Norwey and South Africa, ma also around Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. They are green fish with blue reflections, ranging from 2 to 40 cm (0.79 to 15.75 in) in length.
The most common processing method used to preserve anchovies is cleaning them (by removing bones and guts) and letting them mature in brine. At last, they are packed in oil or salt. This process gives them their characteristic strong flavor.
In Neapolitan cuisine, Canned Anchovies are used to give extra savor to salty dishes (first and second courses, side dishes or even pizzas).
Fun fact: Anchovies are quite common in many culinary traditions around the world. In fact, they are an economic fish and have a long shelf life.